Born to the couple of Natarajan-Bangaru Ammal in a weaver family in Kancheepuram town on September 15.
Joined the Pachaiyappa’s school, Kancheepuram.
Worked as a clerk in the Kancheepuram municipality for a few months
Joined B.A. (Hons) in Pachaiyappa’s College and received scholarship with the help of the then principal of the College. Married Rani Ammal in Kancheepuram.
His maiden article, “Mahilar Kottam” published in “Tamilarasu” run by Masilamani Mudaliar, a doctor.
Met E.V. Ramasamy, popularly known as EVR and Periyar, at Tirupur and accepted him as his leader
Contested in the Chennai Corporation election as a candidate of Justice Party and lost in Pedhunaickenpettai.
Became associate editor in “Viduthalai,” and “Kudiarasu,” both Tamil journals, and “Justice,” an English journal. Imprisoned for four months during the first anti-Hindi agitation, held under EVR’s leadership.
Elected general secretary of the Justice Party
Functioned as a translator during the meeting of B R Ambedkar and EVR.
On a resolution proposed by CNA, the Dravidar Kazhagam was born at the Salem conference of the Justice Party.
When E.V.R. called Independence Day (August 15) a day of mourning, CNA, in his article in “Dravida Nadu,” wanted the day to be celebrated for the removal of colonial rule.
Left the DK to establish Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam at a meeting on Robinson Park, Royapuram, on September 17, a couple of months after the wedding of EVR and Maniyammai.
Imprisoned for six months for authoring a book, “Arya Mayai.”
DMK did not choose to participate in the first general elections
At its conference in Tiruchi in May, DMK decided to take part in general elections due in 1957.
Second general elections. DMK won 15 seats in the Assembly and CNA won from Kancheepuram constituency.
Arrested in January as he planned to organise a black flag demonstration during the visit of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to Chennai.
Defeated in the Kancheepuram constituency in the third general elections. Later, elected to Rajya Sabha.
In January, CNA announced suspension of DMK’s demand for “Dravida Nadu.”
Went to jail in January as he described Republic Day as a black day to protest against the recommendation of a parliamentary panel that Hindi be made the country’s official language. In July, visited Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia and Japan.
Became Chief Minister in March following the DMK’s victory in the general elections to the Assembly. Sworn in as a Member of the Legislative Council in April. The scheme of rice at Re.1 a measure was launched in May and CNA inaugurated it in suburbs of Chennai in August. Responsible for the adoption of a resolution unanimously by the Assembly in July to rename the Madras State as Tamil Nadu. Inaugurated the Cooum Improvement Scheme in September.
World Tamil Conference in January in Chennai. Sanctioned Rs. 9 lakh for Tirukkural research in universities of the State. In April and May, went to United States at the invitation of the US government. Visited Japan too. Was conferred the honorary doctorate degree by the Annamalai University in September. On September 10, left for New York for treatment. On September 16, Theodore Miller, surgeon in the Manhattan Memorial Hospital, New York, operated upon CNA for cancer in the gullet. Returned to Chennai on November 6. Against the medical advice, CNA addressed a function on December 1 to mark the renaming of the State.
Unveiled the statue of Tamil film artist ‘Kalaivanar’ N.S. Krishnan in T. Nagar in Chennai on Pongal day (January 14), which was his last public function. On January 25, Dr. Miller again performed surgery on CNA at the Cancer Institute, Chennai. On January 25, Dr. Miller again performed surgery on CNA at the Cancer Institute, Chennai. February 3: Breathed his last at 12-22 a.m. February 4: Was given State funeral and buried on the Marina beach.
PURATCHI THALAIVAR M. G. R
17th Jan 1917
Marudhur Gopalan Ramachandran was born on January 17, 1917 in Kandy, British Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka) to Melakkath Gopala Menon and Maruthur Satyabhama. He is till date popularly known by the acronym MGR.
1930 To 1950
As an actor, MGR was one of the finest that the country has had. He entertained his audience with some of the most fascinating movies in Tamil cinema. Though he got his beak in 1930, it was only in the decade of 1950 that MGR’s fame catapulted. Films such as ‘Manthiri Kumari’, ‘Malaikkallan’, ‘Alibabavum 40 Thirudargalum’, ‘ Thirudadhe’, ‘Enga Veettu Pillai’, ‘Aayirathil Oruvan’, ‘Anbe Vaa’, ‘Mahadevi’, ‘Panam Padaithavan’, ‘Ulagam Sutrum Vaalibhan’ displayed his best performance as an actor.
MGR made his big break in cinema in the year 1936 with the film, ‘Sathi Leelavathi’. The film was directed by an American-born film director, Ellis Dungan.
1942 To 1962
MGR married Chitarikulam Bargavi popularly known as Thangamani. She died in 1942. He re-married Sathanandavathhi who in turn also died of tuberculosis in 1962. MGR finally married VN Janaki, a former Tamil actress who remained his wife until his death.
1950 To 1954
After his stint in romantic and action films, MGR got his big breakthrough in cinema in 1950 with Karunanidhi’s ‘Manthiri Kumari’. The film catapulted him to fame. He followed its success with the 1954 film, ‘Malaikkallan’.
The relationship between MGR and Annadurai was that of a pupil and a mentor. Subsequently, MGR joined politics as well being a part of the Annadurai’s new Dravidian party, DMK in 1953.
MGR’s career in politics started when he joined Annadurai’s DMK in 1953. No sooner, he became a Dravidian nationalist and a prominent member of the DMK. His star status added much needed glamour to the party making him all the more famous.
The 1955 film, ‘Alibabavum 40 Thirudargalum’ multiplied the fame of MGR who became the first Tamil actor to star in the industry’s first ever geva colour flick. Gradually, banking on his star status, MGR gave stellar performances one after the other in films like ‘Thirudadhe’, ‘Enga Veettu Pillai’, ‘Aayirathil Oruvan’, ‘Anbe Vaa, Mahadevi’, ‘Panam Padaithavan’ and‘Ulagam Sutrum Vaalibhan’. He soon became the heartthrob of millions of Tamilians.
1962 To 1969
In 1962, MGR became a member of the state Legislative Council. Five years later, he was first elected to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. Following the death of the DMK founder and his mentor Annadurai in 1969, MGR served as the treasurer of the party.
In 1967, MGR met with a tragic incident. His co-actor M. R. Radha shot him on his left ear twice which after a surgical operation left MGR partially deaf. He was unable to hear from his left ear and suffered from ear ringing problems all through his life. His voice changed permanently.
Following Annadurai’s death, Karunanidhi became DMK’s leader. MGR demanded to publicise the financial details of the party. His opposition led to his exit from the party.
1972 To 1977
Between 1972 and 1977, MGR frequently travelled, spreading and preaching his party ambitions. He used the power of cinema to project his party policies. Films like ‘Netru Indru Naalai’, ‘Idhayakani’,‘Indru Pol Endrum Vazhga’supported ADMK’s programs.
He was felicitated with honorary doctorate degrees from the University of Madras and the World University Arizona in 1974.
In 1977, MGR’s ADMK successfully defeated DMK. MGR became the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. He emphasized on education and social development. MGR converted Madras CM K. Kamaraj’s ‘Midday Meal Scheme’ to ‘MGR’s Nutritious Meal Scheme’ where he added saththurundai, a nutritious sugary flour dumpling, to the meals. He set up free schools in Kodambakkam.
Apart from education, MGR focussed on women welfare. He introduced women-centric buses. MGR even concentrated on preservation of cultural and heritage buildings and monuments, such as temples, historical sites and so on. This in turn led to a boost in tourism. Liquor ban made the state all the more spiritually inclined. His pro-state policies helped him win the 1980 elections as well.
In the 1984 elections, MGR was undergoing a treatment in America. Despite not being part of the campaign, his popularity led ADMK win the election by a huge majority. Consequently, Congress allied with ADMK. His images were broadcast throughout the cinema halls in Tamil Nadu as part of the campaign. His party ADMK won every state assembly election as long as MGR was alive.
In 1984, MGR was diagnosed with kidney failure. A mild heart attack coupled with diabetes and massive stroke complicated his health further. He travelled to America for kidney transplantation where he was admitted at the Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn.
24th Dec 1987
He frequently visited America for treatment but he never fully recovered from his prolonged illness. He breathed his last on December 24, 1987 at 3:30 am at Chennai Apollo Hospital. He was 71 years of age.
Posthumously, his political party, the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, split. In 1988, the two merged.
In 1989, in the memory of MGR, Dr. M. G. R. Home and Higher Secondary School for the Speech and Hearing Impaired was established in Ramavaram. His official residence was turned into ‘MGR Memorial House’ and is open for public viewing. His film studio, Sathya Studios, was converted into a women's college.
PURATCHI THALAIVI AMMA
Born on 24th February 1948 at Melukote in Mysore state, now Karnataka to Thiru. Jayaram and Tmt. Vedavalli.Was Named Komalavalli following the ancestral traditions. Later at the age of one was names Jayalalithaa. She was fondly referred by her mother and relatives as Ammu.
Attended school at Bishop Cotton Girls, Bengaluru
Continued education at Sacred Heart Matriculation school, Chennai. Puratchi Thalaivi Amma excelled at school by always securing top ranks and was offered a government scholarship to pursue further education after her matriculation. After leaving school she joined Stella Maris College, Chennai to study law but had to discontinue. Thalaivi Amma was trained in Carnatic music, western classical piano and various forms of classical dance including Bharatanatyam, Kuchipudi,Mohiniyattam, Manipuri Kathak. She started acting in small roles of plays, dramas.
1964 – 1973 : (Silver Screen career)
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma made her debut films in Telugu and Kannada in 1964 and her Tamil film debut in 1965 - each of them were very successful and offers started coming up for her as the lead female heroine.Puratchi Thalaivi Amma holds the record for having been the Tamil actress with maximum silver jubilee hits in her career – 85 hits of 92 Tamil films as main female lead heroine and in addition she also has all 28 films in Telugu as silver jubilee hits. She was the highest paid Indian actress from 1965–1980.
1964 – 1973 (Silver Screen career)
She has won 5 TamilNadu State Film Award for Best Actress, 8 TamilNadu Cinema Fan Award for Best Actress, 5 Filmfare Award for Best Actress – Tamil, 1 Filmfare Award for Best Actress – Telugu, 1 Russian Film Festival, 7 Madras Film Association Awards for Best Actress.
Political Career 1982
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma joined the AIADMK, which was founded by Puratchi Thalaivar. Her maiden public speech, "Pennin Perumai" ("The Greatness of a Woman"), was delivered at the AIADMK's political conference in the same year.
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma became propaganda secretary for the party and was selected as its candidate in the by-election for the Tiruchendur Assembly constituency.
Puratchi Thalaivi becomes Member of Parliament,Rajya Sabha because of her fluency in English skills. She was elected Deputy Leader of the party’s parliamentary group.
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma assumes General Secretaryship of the AIADMK.
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma becomes the first woman to be the elected leader of the Opposition.
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma was assaulted by DMK members , who was in power then. Amma swears not to return to the house as long as DMK president Mr. Karunanidhi was in power.
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma was sworn in as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu with the largest number of members in the State Assembly.
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma introduces the Cradle Baby Scheme to prevent female foeticide.Amma’s government was the first to introduce All Women Police Station. Amma introduced 30%quota for women in all police jobs and established as many as 57 all-women police stations.
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma becomes the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma wins the Andipatti assembly by-polls and once again assumes the position of Chief Minister. Amma forms India’s first company of female police commandos.
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma wins the 13-party alliance in the Tamil Nadu Assembly elections and was sworn in as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.
Puratchi Thlaivi Amma introduced several welfare measures such as Amma Unavagm, Amma mineral Water,Amma Pharmacy, Amma Salt,Amma Cement etc.. to benefit the people.
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma sworn in as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, having been elected from Dr. RadhaKrishnan Nagar constituency. She is one of the few Chief Ministers to be elected consecutively twice. Puratchi Thalaivi Amma orders the implementation of five schemes on the first day of assuming office:
a) TASMAC shops to open only at 12 noon and not at 10 a.m. earlier, and close as usual at 10 p.m. Five hundred retail shops to be closed b) Waiver of crop loans c) Eight grams of gold for Mangal Sutra d) Costless Power upto 100 units e) Costless Power upto 250 units for handloom weavers and upto 750 units for Powerloom weavers Puratchi Thalaivi Amma breathed her last on 05th December 2016.
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma was fluent in several languages, including Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Hindi, Malayalam and English. Awards and honours won by Puratchi Thalaivi Amma
Government of Tamil Nadu honours Puratchi Thalaivi Amma with Kalaimamani Award
A degree of Doctor of Literature was conferred upon by University of Madras.
A degree of Doctor of Science was conferred by Dr. MGR Medical University.
A degree of Doctor of Letters was conferred by Madurai Kamara University.
A degree of Doctor of Science given by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.
A degree of Doctor of Letters conferred by Bharatidasan University.
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma was invited by the House of Lords, London in 2004 to receive the “Woman Politician of the Decade” award from the Asian Guild Awards. The Golden Star of Honour Dignity Award conferred by International Human Rights Defence Committee recognising Puratchi Thalaivi Amma’s service in protecting the weaker section of society and in the field of gender equality in Tamil Nadu and India.
Resolution passed by the New Jersey General Assembly to appreciate her exemplary excellence and dedication as a leader and in service to the people of Tamil Nadu.